munshi Premchand was born on 31 July 1880 in Lamhi, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. He was a Novelist, Founder, Indian Writer, Editor & Screenwriter.
munshi premchand works
Work done by munshi premchand are the following:
|Hindi title||Urdu title||Publisher||Date||Length (pages)||Description|
|Devasthan Rahasya||Asrar-e-Ma’abid||Awaz-e-Khalk (serial form)||1903 (8 October)-1905 (February)||116||English translation of the title: “The Mystery of God’s Abode”|
|Prema||Hamkhurma-o-Ham Sawab||Indian Press/Hindustan Publishing House||1907||Amrit Rai overcomes social opposition to marry the young widow Poorna, giving up his rich and beautiful fiancé Prema. (Penned under the name “Babu Nawab Rai Banarsi”)|
|Kishna||Medical Hall Press, Benares||1907||142||Now lost; satirises women’s fondness for jewellery|
|Roothi Rani||Zamana (serial form)||1907 (April–August)|
|Soz-e-Watan||Publishers of Zamana||1907,1909||Banned by the British Government in 1909|
|Vardaan||Jalwa-e-Isar||Granth Bhandar and Dhanju||1912||128||Vardan (“Boon”) is about Pratap Cahndra and Brij Rani, two childhood neighbours who like each other. Brij marries another man and becomes a famous poet after being widowed. Her friend Madhvi starts liking Pratap after hearing about him from Brij. Pratap becomes a sadhu, and Madhvi becomes his devotee.|
|Seva Sadan||Bazaar-e-Husn||Calcutta Pustak Agency (Hindi)||1919 (Hindi); 1924 (Urdu)||280||An unhappy housewife first becomes a courtesan, and then manages an orphanage for the young daughters of the courtesans.|
|Rangbhoomi||Chaugan-e-Hasti||Darul Ishaat (Urdu, 1935)||1924||English title: Playground.|
|Nirmala||Nirmala||Idaara-e-Furoogh-Urdu||1925||156||English title: The second wife. About the dowry system in India (serialised in the magazine Chand between November 1921 and November 1926, before being published as a novel)|
|Kaayakalp||Parda-i-Majaz||Lajpat Rai & Sons, Lahore (Urdu)||1926 (Hindi), 1934 (Urdu)||440|
|Pratigya||Bewa||1927||Deals with widow remarriage|
|Gaban||Ghaban||Saraswati Press, Benares; Lajpatrai & Sons, Urdu Bazaar||1931||248|
|Karmabhoomi||Maidan-e-Amal||Maktaba Jamia, Delhi||1932|
|Godaan||Saraswati Press||1936||344||English title: The Gift of the Cow. Themed around the socio economic deprivation as well as the exploitation of the village poor.|
|Mangalsootra (incomplete)||Hindustan Publishing House||1936||Premchand completed only first four chapters (around 70 pages) of this novel.|
Adeeb Ki Izat (Urdu)
|A story of writer who wanted respect and recognition of his work but later realised that he is a candle which will have to burn giving light to others.|
|Duniya ka Sabse Anmol Ratan||Zamana||1907||The title means “The Most Precious Jewel in the World”, which according to the story, is the drop of the blood necessary for the nation’s independence|
|Bade Bhai Sahab||Zamana||1910 (December)||A story of two brothers, their conflict, resolution and understanding|
|Beti ka Dhan||Zamana||1915 (November)|
|Saut||Sarasvati (Vol. 16, Part 2, No. 6, 353–359)||1915 (December)||The title means “co-wife”.|
|Sajjanata ka dand||Sarasvati||1916 (March)||The title means “The Penalty for Integrity”.|
|Panch Parameshvar||Sarasvati||1916 (June)||A friendship is marred when one friend delivers a verdict against the other. The story narrates how they reunite as friends.|
|Ishwariya Nyaya||Sarasvati||1917 (July)||The title means “The Divine Law”|
|Beton Wali Vidhwa||Sarasvati||1920 (July)|
|Durga ka Mandir||Sarasvati||1917 (December)||The title means “The Temple of Durga“.|
|Maa||Sarasvati||1921 (November)||The title means “Mother“|
|Ghar Jamai||Sarasvati||1933 (June)|
|Dil ki Rani||Sarasvati||1926 (December)|
|Gulli Danda||Sarasvati||1925 (May)|
|Meri Pahli Rachna||Sarasvati||1930 (May)|
|Balidan||Sarasvati||1918 (May)||The title means “Sacrifice”.|
|Putra Prem||Sarasvati||1920 (July)||The title means “Love of a Son”.|
|Boodhi Kaki (The Old Aunt)||Hans||1921||An old woman craves for love from her family.|
|Pariksha||Chand||1923 (January)||The title means “The Test”. Its background is the Nadir Shah’s invasion and sack of Delhi.|
|Shatranj ke khiladi (Hindi)
Shatranj ki bazi (Urdu)
|Madhuri||October 1924||Two aristocrats – Mirza Sajjad Ali and Mir Roshan Ali — live in the kingdom of Awadh during the times of the British Raj. Both of them are careless towards their duties and spend their days playing chess. Their love for the game is so immense that even when the ruler of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, is captured by the British they continue playing chess. In the end, a move in the game sparks a verbal conflict between them and they end up killing each other with their swords.|
|Hinsa Parmo Dharma||Madhuri||1926 (December)|
|Idgah||Chand||1933 (August)||A poor boy in India lives with his grandmother. On the festival day of Eid, the other kids buy themselves candies and toys. The poor boy, thinking of his grandmother, buys a pair of tongs to help her make rotis, since she burns her hands trying to cook them bare-handed.|
|Nashaa||Chand||1934 (February)||Two friends from different strata of society study away from their homes. The story explores class disparity and aspirations in their friendship. It has an autobiographical touch.|
|Kafan||Jamia||1936||A low-caste father and his son are poor labourers in a village. An emergency occurs when the son’s wife dies while giving birth to a child and the family has no money to cremate the body of the dead woman. The lazy duo ask for money from the village zamindar and other members of the society. However, they use the money they get on liquor and food instead.|
|Cricket Match||Zamana||1937||Published posthumously|
|Gupt Dhan||Haridas, a man of character, owns a brick factory. He loses his character when he gets a map of a hereditary treasure of a worker, but eventually dies as a punishment of god.|
|Mantra||The selfishness of a rich doctor named Chaddha results in the death of a patient. The same patient’s father selflessly cures Dr. Chaddha’s son, when the doctor meets the same sort of situation.|
|Namak Ka Daroga||1925 (May)||The title means ‘The Salt Inspector’. An idealist becomes a police officer, and faces problems while performing his duties.|
|Poos ki raat||Madhuri||1930 (May)||The title means “A night of the Poos month (Winter)”. A poor farmer stays out with his dog to protect his field on an extremely cold December night.|
|Lottery||Zamana||It is a story of an Indian family in which every member bought a ticket of a 1 million rupees worth lottery. After some time they began to fight over that what would they do if anyone win the lottery but at last neither from their home even town, state or country win the lottery but someone from America.|
|“Vidhwans”||The title means ” Catastrophe”. An old widow with no children is engulfed in a fire caused by the owner of the village intentionally and therefore, the pandit pays for the price.|
|“Kazaki”||A story of love, adore and friendship between a little boy and kazaki, a poor but cheerful and jolly man used to work under his father.|
Other stories include:
- Agni Samadhi
- “Bade Ghar Ki Beti” (1926)
- Daroga Sahab
- Dhaai ser gehun
- Dikri Ke Rupaye
- Do Bahanein
- Do Sakhiyan(1926)
- Do Bailon ki Katha
- Do Kabren(1920)
- Doodh ka Damm (1910)
- Gilli danda”
- Har Ki Jeet(1925)
- Khudai Fauzdaar
- Manushya Ka Param Dharma(March 1920)
- Maryada ki Vedi
- Mukti Marg(1922)
- Pashu se Manushya
- Prem Purnima
- Prem Ka Uday(1923)
- Samar Yatra(1930)
- Sawa Ser Gehun(1921)
- Sewa Marg
- Suhag ki Sari(1923)
- Sujan Bhagat
- Rani Sarndha(1930)
- Swatva Raksha
- Thakur ka Kuaan(1924)
- Thriya Charita
- Khoon Safed(1923)
- Udhar Ki Ghadi
- Raja Hardaul(1925)
- Hajje Akbar
- Sautele Maa
- Bhadde ka Tattu(1922)
- Mritak Bhoj(1922)
Premchand translated several non-Hindi works into Hindi. These included the writings of, Charles Dickens (The Story of Richard Doubledick), Oscar Wilde (Canterville), John Galsworthy (Strife), Sadi, Guy de Maupassant, Maurice Maeterlinck (Sightless) and Hendrik van Loon (The Story of Mankind).
Some of the translated titles include:
|Ahankar||Thais by Anatole France(adaptation)|
|Azad Katha||Fasana-e Azad (1880) by Ratan Nath Dhar Sarshar|
|Parvat Yatra||Sair-e-Kohsar (1890) by Ratan Nath Dhar Sarshar|
|Chandi Ki Dibiya||The Silver Box (1906) by John Galsworthy|
|Hartal||Strife (1909) by John Galsworthy|
|Nyaya||Justice (1910) by John Galsworthy|
|Sukhdas||Silas Marner by George Eliot(adaptation)|
|Tolstoy Ki Kahaniyan||Stories of Leo Tolstoy|
- Mazdoorमजदूर (1934)
- Kuchh Vichar(two parts)
- Qalam Tyag aur Talwar
- Mahatma Sheikhsadi(biography of Saadi)
- Bal Kahaniyan Sumpurn
- Ram Charcha
munshi premchand whose original name was Dhanpat Rai Srivastava, was born on 31 July 1880, in village Lamahi near Varanasi. His father was a clerk in the post office. When he was only seven his mother died and his father while he was only fourteen. After that, he was left responsible for his stepmother and step-siblings.
In his childhood days, Premchand faced immense poverty. He earned only five rupees a month tutoring a lawyer’s child. He was married when he was only fourteen but that marriage failed, later munshi premchand married again, to Shivrani Devi, a child widow, and had several children. She supported him through many life struggles.
In the year 1899, he passed his exam with great effort, and in 1899 he took up a school-teaching job, with a monthly salary of eighteen rupees. In the year 1919, he passed his B.A. in English, Persian, and History. Later, he worked as the deputy sub-inspector of schools.
Family details of munshi premch and are the following:
- Father Name: Ajaib Lal
- Mother Name: Anand Devi
- Siblings: Suggi
- Wife Name: Shivrani Devi(married 1906- 1936)
- Son Names: Amrit Rai, Shripath Rai
- Daughter Name: Kamala Devi
Some unknown facts about munshi premchand are the following:
- munshi premchand whose original name was Dhanpat Rai Srivastava, was born on 31 July 1880, in village Lamahi near Varanasi.
- His father was a clerk in the post office.
- When he was only seven his mother died and his father while he was only fourteen.
- After that, he was left responsible for his stepmother and step-siblings.
- In his childhood days, munshi premchand faced immense poverty.
- He earned only five rupees a month tutoring a lawyer’s child.
- He was married when he was only fourteen but that marriage failed, later munshi premchand married again, to Shivrani Devi, a child widow, and had several children.
- She supported him through many life struggles.
- In the year 1899, he passed his exam with great effort, and in 1899 he took up a school-teaching job, with a monthly salary of eighteen rupees.
- In the year 1919, he passed his B.A. in English, Persian, and History. Later, he worked as the deputy sub-inspector of schools.
- The Sahitya Akademi, India’s National Academy of Letters, established the Premchand Fellowships in his honor in 2005. It is given to persons of eminence in the field of culture from SAARC countries.
Some of the favorite things about munshi premchand are the following:
Ø Favorite Color- Red, White, and Brown
Ø Favorite Place- Kashmir
Some frequently asked questions about munshi premchand
- How did munshi premchand die?
During his last days, he was full of financial constraints and died due to chronic illness on 8 October 1936 in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. A few days before his death, he was elected as the first President of the Progressive Writers’ Association in Lucknow specifically.
- Why is Premchand called Munshi?
Because, munshi premchand started writing under the pen name “Nawab Rai”, but subsequently switched to “Premchand”, Munshi being an honorary prefix for them.
- What was Premchand’s salary at his first job?
In the year 1900, munshi premchand worked as an assistant teacher at the Government District School, Bahraich, on a monthly salary of only 20 rupees.
- Who is the son of munshi premchand?
munsi premchand had two sons: Amrit Rai and Sripath Rai.
- What is the name of Premchand’s wife?
Premchand’s wife name was Shivrani Devi.